B M B 400

Part Four: Gene Regulation

 

 

Overview of Regulation

 

            Regulation is the controlled expression of gene functions. This can be done in many ways, but these can be grouped into two classes.  The level of enzyme activity can be regulated by noncovalent or covalent modification of a protein.  The amount of the protein can also be regulated.  This latter class of regulation can be exerted at any step in the pathway of gene expression or during protein turnover.  For many (perhaps most) genes, the principal level of regulation of expression is at transcription, and Part Four of this course will focus primarily on this.  However, post-transcriptional control is also important in many genes, and this will also be discussed.

 

 

Protein activity can be regulated by:

 

   allostery

 

   covalent modification

 

   sequestration.

 

 

Protein amount can be regulated by the rates of:

 

   gene transcription

 

   RNA processing

 

   RNA turnover

 

   mRNA translation

 

   protein modification

 

   protein assembly

 

   protein turnover.